v Exp Med Biol. 2013;776:267-76.
Simulative Evaluation of Taurine Against Hair Loss Caused by Stress in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Kim H, Chang H, Lee DH.
Hair loss or alopecia has been portrayed as a modern malady which is aggravated by stressful conditions. Major cases of alopecia were found among individuals of 40s-50s, nowadays, even among the 20s-30s. This study characterized taurine's potential against alopecia caused by chemical stress agents based on the comparison with other commercially available anti-alopecia agents using Caenorhabditis elegans. ... Hsp-70 protein expression increased, while worm's lifespan and per capita progeny number significantly decreased along with an unusually retarded movement. A positive response was shown when worms were treated with taurine along with astressin-B and finasteride. Between the treatments, finasteride showed better outcomes in terms of stress-reducing effects. Taurine helped worms recover more effectively from adverse influence of stress. In conclusion, there is strong evidence that taurine has a great potential as a hai rloss treatment agent, especially against the one caused by the chemical stress. The present study implies that taurine might strongly work against hair loss when used in combination with other commercially available -anti-alopecia agents.
Arch Dermatol. 1992;128(1):68
The follicular degeneration syndrome in black patients. 'Hot comb alopecia' revisited and revised.
Sperling LC, Sau P.
BACKGROUND--The history, physical examination, and histologic findings in 10 black women with a common, distinctive form of scarring alopecia ( hair loss ) were retrospectively studied. A detailed history of hair care habits was obtained, and scalp biopsy specimens were examined after both vertical and transverse sectioning. OBSERVATIONS--Poor correlation is noted between the usage of a hot comb and the onset or progression of disease. The earliest observable histologic abnormality is the premature desquamation of the inner root sheath. In severely affected follicles this is followed by a chain of histologic events leading to complete follicular degeneration. CONCLUSIONS--The term follicular degeneration syndrome (FDS) is proposed for this clinically and histologically distinct form of scarring alopecia. Historical information is incompatible with the hypothesis that hot comb usage causes the hair loss. It remains unclear whether the use of any of a variety of hair care products and techniques plays a role in the pathogenesis of this condition. ..snip...
( edited for hair loss treatment blog )
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Z Hautkr. 1990;65(12):108o
Assessment of Hair-loss treatment methods,
With regard to hair regrowth induced by therapeutics, we must consider the activity of the hair follicle. This means that a study on the efficacy of hair regrowth treatments requires investigation of different kinds of follicular activity. The decision which technique depends on the reliability of the method in relation to the technical requirement, on the one hand, and the acceptance by the volunteer as well as the clinical type and degree of hair loss, on the other. Trichorhizogram results as the only means of evaluating the efficacy of hair growth therapeutics seem problematical, since an increase of the anagen rate does not absolutely correlate with a prolongation of the anagen phase.
PLoS One. 2011;6(11):e28145. Epub 2011 Nov 29.
Detecting Low Frequent Loss-of-Function Alleles in Genome Wide Association Studies with Red Hair Color as Example.
Liu F, et al
Multiple loss-of-function (LOF) alleles at the same gene may influence a phenotype not only in the homozygote state when alleles are considered individually, but also in the compound heterozygote (CH) state. Such LOF alleles typically have low frequencies and moderate to large effects. Detecting such variants is of interest to the genetics community, and relevant statistical methods for detecting and quantifying their effects are sorely needed. We present a collapsed double heterozygosity (CDH) test to detect the presence of multiple LOF alleles at a gene. When causal SNPs are available, which may be the case in next generation genome sequencing studies, this CDH test has overwhelmingly higher power than single SNP analysis. When causal SNPs are not directly available such as in current GWA settings, we show the CDH test has higher power than standard single SNP analysis if tagging SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium with the underlying causal SNPs to at least a moderate degree (r(2)>0.1). The test is implemented for genome-wide analysis in the publically available software package GenABEL which is based on a sliding window approach. We provide the proof of principle by conducting a genome-wide CDH analysis of red hair color, a trait known to be influenced by multiple loss-of-function alleles, in a total of 7,732 Dutch individuals with hair color ascertained. The association signals at the MC1R gene locus from CDH were uniformly more significant than traditional GWA analyses . The CDH test will contribute towards finding rare LOF variants in GWAS and sequencing studies.
Edited for hair loss treatment and hair regrowth blog use
Dermatol Ther. 2011 Jul;24(4):432-42. doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8019.2011.01430.x.
Treatment of chemotherapy-induced Hair Loss.
Yeager CE, Olsen EA.
Chemotherapy-induced alopecia has been well documented as a cause of distress to patients undergoing cancer treatment. Despite the importance of hair loss to patients, however, patients often receive little more counseling than the advice to purchase a wig or other head covering for the duration of their treatment. Research into non-camouflage (wigs, turbans, and head scarves) treatment methods has been complicated both by a lack of a standardized methodology for evaluating hair loss and hair regrowth and by a lack of human trials. Nevertheless, scalp cooling as a method of preventing hair loss during chemotherapy and 2% topical minoxidil as a therapy for accelerating regrowth after chemotherapy are both effective non-camouflage options for treatment. Other proposed treatments for prevention of hair loss during chemotherapy have demonstrated promise in early trials, but these findings will need validation from rigorous further studies. The increasing number of reports of permanent alopecia not just with pre-bone marrow transplant, high-dose busulfan, and cyclophosphamide regimens but also with standard breast cancer chemotherapy regimens illustrates the importance of further research into treatment methods for chemotherapy-induced alopecia.
Edited for hair loss blog use
Androgenic Alopecia ( Pattern Hair loss )
Abstract: Androgenic alopecia (AGA), or male pattern hair loss, is the most common form of hair loss and affects up to 50% of all men by the age of 50. This article looks at the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment (both medical and surgical) of AGA.
Amber S. Tully, Justin Schwartzenberger, James Studdiford
journal of men's health (Vol. 7, Issue 3, Pages 270-277)
Modified for hair loss treatment blog.
Hair Loss Treatment at the Proctor Clinic.
Hair Loss and Hair Loss Treatment blog.
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Am J Pathol. 2003 Mar;162(3):803-14.
Stress inhibits hair growth in mice by induction of premature catagen development and deleterious perifollicular inflammatory events via neuropeptide substance P-dependent pathways.
Arck PC, et al
It has been much disputed whether or not stress can cause hair loss (telogen effluvium) in a clinically relevant manner. Despite the paramount psychosocial importance of hair in human society, this central, yet enigmatic and controversial problem of clinically applied stress research has not been systematically studied in appropriate animal models. We now show that psychoemotional stress indeed alters actual hair follicle (HF) cycling in vivo, ie, prematurely terminates the normal duration of active hair growth (anagen) in mice. Further, inflammatory events deleterious to the HF are present in the HF environment of stressed mice (perifollicular macrophage cluster, excessive mast cell activation). This provides the first solid pathophysiological mechanism for how stress may actually cause telogen effluvium, ie, by hair cycle manipulation and neuroimmunological events that combine to terminate anagen. Furthermore, we show that most of these hair growth-inhibitory effects of stress can be reproduced by the proteotypic stress-related neuropeptide substance P in nonstressed mice, and can be counteracted effectively by co-administration of a specific substance P receptor antagonist in stressed mice. This offers the first convincing rationale how stress-induced hair loss in men may be pharmacologically managed effectively.
Extending our previous pilot study in telogen mouse skin,12 we show here for the first time that a well-defined psychoemotional stressor indeed alters actual HF cycling in vivo, ie, prematurely terminates the normal duration of hair growth in mice and up-regulates apoptosis and deleterious inflammatory events in and around the murine HFs. This provides the first solid pathophysiological mechanism for how stress may actually cause telogen effluvium and/or may even be involved in triggering the development of alopecia areata: 1) induction of premature catagen induction; 2) up-regulation of keratinocyte apoptosis in the hair bulb and bulge, the most damage-sensitive epithelial component of the HF; 3) induction of mast cell degranulation; 4) attraction of potentially damaging perifollicular infiltrates of activated macrophages home in on the bulge, the site of HF epithelial stem cells, thus reflecting an immunoactivation.
Furthermore, we show that most hair growth-inhibitory effects of stress can be imitated by the prototypic stress-related neuropeptide, SP, and, with respect to premature catagen onset, increased apoptosis and MHC class II+ cell infiltrates, can be counteracted effectively by co-administration of a specific SP receptor antagonist.
To date, SP has been implicated in diverse pathophysiologies, especially diseases of the central nervous system, which have been examined in the greatest detail.21,54,55 Although SP is best known as a pain-mediating neuropeptide, it also controls various behavioral, neurochemical, and cardiovascular responses to stress26,27,55-58 and exerts a wide range of immunomodulating properties.55,59-61 The development of small molecule antagonists of the SP-preferring tachykinin NK1 receptor during the past decade32,49 offers an important opportunity to exploit these molecules as novel therapeutic agents for hair growth disorders. In addition, recent clinical trials have confirmed the efficacy of NK1 receptor antagonists to alleviate depression and emesis but, surprisingly, not pain.62 In the future, clinical trials, targeted to appropriate patient populations, ie, patients with telogen effluvium or alopecia areata, may establish the therapeutic potential of novel neuropeptide ligands in such hair growth disorders.
In the present study we compared a well-established CBA/J mouse model for stress-related research (based on activation of the immune system and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis),16,23 with the in hair research widely used mouse strain C57BL/6.14,40,41,47 Published data indicate that different strains of mice react differently to various methods of stress application, ie, restraint stress affects C3H/HeJ, however, CBA/J or A/J mice proved resistant to restraint stress.16 By contrast, noise stress would affect CBA/J mice and C57BL/6 mice, both of which have been used in the present study.16,63 Comparing different strains in stress models, one might further question the hearing ability of the genetically different strains of mice, particularly when an audio stressor has been used. In our present study we observed that both strains, CBA/J and C57BL/6, showed high similarities in their response to stress/SP and skin immune environment. This is supported by published data indicating that C57BL/6 mice at the age of 6 weeks, as used in the present study, showed the same susceptibility to noise than CBA/J mice at the same age.64
An important focus of research on stress-induced hair regrowth inhibition is to identify stress-vulnerable areas of the HF. One such area might be the residence of stem cell areas within the skin, because stem cells are vital for the homeostasis of self-renewing tissues and their manipulation may have wide-ranging consequences.49 Rodent HF stem cells have been localized to the follicle bulge, whereas the location of human HF stem cells is less clear, and their characterization has been hampered by a lack of cellular markers for the bulge area.49 These cells acquire the ability to produce a new hair.65 The up-regulation of TUNEL+ cells in this key area of the HF, the bulge, by stress, as observed in the present study, is particularly striking because this region is one of the most sensitive targets for hair growth inhibitory agents and an abnormally high number of apoptotic cells in the epithelial stem cell region of the bulge carries the risk of permanent HF loss by programmed organ deletion. This observation further supports our previously published data on increased signs of apoptosis in stressed mice with all HFs in resting telogen stage.12 Thus, we propose that such delicate area as the bulge region of the cycling HF is one key target for immune cells, particularly activated macrophages and mast cells, activated by systemic stress mediators and that have the potential to damage the HF morphology by up-regulation of apoptosis through the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, ie, tumor necrosis factor-, interleukin-1ß, and interferon-.66-69 Longitudinal studies are now required to elucidate if a stress-triggered attack of HF stem cells would be associated with permanent or reversible hair growth inhibition. Further, based on our current data, we cannot differentiate whether the apoptotic cells in the bulge region are really stem cells or may be transient amplifying cells. Therefore we hope that the findings of the present study may foster research with label-retaining cells,70 which would tell us whether we are dealing with stem cells or not.
Clinical experience has long suggested that psychological factors play a role in triggering or exacerbating hair loss. The present study now reports the first experimental evidence available in the literature that psychoemotional stress indeed negatively affects the cycling activity of HFs as well as their immune environment in vivo, thus strongly suggesting the concept that stress-induced hair loss is a clinical reality that should and can be treated. Once confirmed for the human system, the data presented here together with the recent emergence of NK1 antagonists as promising anti-depressants, SP receptor antagonists might serve a dual clinical role, ie, for alleviating both stress-induced hair loss itself, and secondary the depressive mood that comes with it.
Modified for hair loss treatment blog use. hair regrowth hair loss treatment.
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J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010 Jul 13.
Lipid peroxidation/antioxidant activity in patients with alopecia areata.
Abdel Fattah NS, et al
Aetiopathogenesis of hair loss in alopecia areata (AA) is not fully understood and many factors have been assumed. Oxidant/antioxidant disequilibrium has been proposed with controversies between results. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine lipid peroxidation/antioxidant activity in patients with AA and to determine its clinical significance. Methods Fifty non-obese patients with AA and 50 age-, gender- and body mass index-matched controls (25 patients with severe grade acne vulgaris representative of an oxidative stress condition and 25 healthy volunteers), were included. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), indicator of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), were spectrophotometrically measured in blood from all subjects and in scalp tissues from 10 patients with AA. Results No significant differences in MDA levels and SOD activity existed between patients with AA and those with acne. However, significantly higher MDA levels and lower SOD activity were found in patients with AA compared with healthy controls. Within patients with AA, lipid peroxidation/antioxidant parameters showed significant differences with disease duration, pattern and extent of lesions. Significant positive correlations also existed between tissue and blood SOD activity and between tissue and blood MDA levels of the 10 studied patients with AA. Conclusions Increased lipid peroxidation and defective SOD activity exist in patients with AA. Addition of drugs with antioxidative effects seems to be valuable in treatment.
Hair loss treatment
Mymensingh Med J. 2010;19:100
Histopathological changes in different stages of ha r loss due to alopecia areata.
Ahmed Z, et al
Hair loss due to alopecia areata is a common disorder affecting any of the hair bearing areas of the body. Most of the cases are diagnosed on the clinical ground only. Histopathological changes may help in the diagnosis in difficult cases. The present study was designed to observe the histopathologic changes accompanying hair loss in alopecia areata at different stages. Thirty consecutive patients suffering from alopecia areata were enrolled. Face to face interview was performed using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. At the initial visit, one 4mm punch scalp biopsy specimen was taken from an area of hair loss. ....Haematoxylin and eosin stains were used. Anagen hairs were decreased in all stages of hair loss due to alopecia areata. Telogen hairs increased in acute and chronic stages whereas catagen hairs increased markedly in sub-acute stage. Although miniaturized (atrophic) follicle was frequently found in chronic stage. It was absent in acute and sub-acute stages. Moderate to dense peribulbar infiltration of lymphocytes were observed in acute stage and mild to moderate infiltration in sub-acute stage. In chronic stage either no or mild infiltrations were observed. Peribulbar infiltration of eosinophils and macrophages were seen in all stages of alopecia areata. Alopecia areata can be diagnosed with some confidence, even when inflammatory infiltrate is absent, based on increased numbers of telogen hairs in the acute and chronic stages, increased miniaturized hairs in chronic stage and markedly increased catagen hairs in sub-acute stage.
edited for hair loss blog use. Key words hair regrowth hair loss hair loss treatment.
Dermatol Online J. 2010 15:3.
Does D matter? The role of vitamin D in hair disorders and hair follicle cycling.
Amor KT, et al
BACKGROUND: The role of vitamin D in the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes is well known within the field of dermatology. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role that vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor play in the hair cycle and assess how this can be clinically applied to the treatment of hair loss and hair disorders. METHODS: A MEDLINE search was preformed to find relevant articles pertaining to vitamin D, the vitamin D receptor, and hair loss and hair regrowth. RESULTS: The vitamin D receptor, independent of vitamin D, plays an important role in hair cycling, specifically anagen initiation. The role of vitamin D in hair follicle cycling is not as well understood. LIMITATIONS: The review is broad and there are limited human studies available to date. CONCLUSION: Additional studies to evaluate the role of vitamin D in the hair cycle should be done. Treatments that up regulate the vitamin D receptor may be successful in treating hair loss and are a potential area of further study.
hair loss, hair regrowth and hair loss treatment shampoosss and treatments
Clin Ophthalmol. 2010 Apr 26;4:349.
Bimatoprost in the treatment of eyelash hair loss.
Editd for hair loss treatment blog
Eyelashes hypotrichosis is a condition indicated by an inadequate amount of eyelashes. Hypertrichosis of eyelashes, characterized by excessive eyelash hair growth, is a regular phenomenon associated with ophthalmic prostaglandin and prostamide analogs. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Latisse((R)) (bimatoprost 0.03% solution), identical to the ophthalmic solution for glaucoma treatment, for increasing eyelash hair length, thickness and darkness in patients with hypotrichosis of the eyelashes. When prostaglandin and prostamide analogs interact with the prostanoid receptors in the hair follicle, this most likely stimulates the resting follicles (telogen phase) to growing follicles (anagen phase). Prostaglandin and prostamide analogs may also prolong the anagen phase of eyelashes, leading to an increase of eyelash length. Although bimatoprost is effective in promoting increased regrowth of healthy eyelashes and adnexal hairs, its effectiveness in patients with eyelash hair loss due to alopecia areata is debatable and its protective effect is not yet studied in patients with eyelash loss secondary to radiation or chemotherapy. Bimatoprost is generally safe when applied to the base of the eyelashes at the lid margin with minimum side effects. However, other ocular or systemic side effects associated with ophthalmic prostaglandin and prostamide analogs may occur when instilled on the surface of the eye, and patients must be informed and monitored.
Br J Dermatol. 2009 Aug;161:228
Epidermal stem cells: practical perspectives and potential uses.
Abbas O, Mahalingam M.
Modified for hair loss blog
Throughout adult life, the epidermis and the hair follicle undergo a perpetual cycle of regrowth, regression and rest. Stem cells in the epidermis not only ensure the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis and hair regrowth, but also contribute to repair of the epidermis after injury. These stem cells lie within specific niches in the hair follicle and the epidermis. The availability of monoclonal antibodies that can be used on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue has greatly facilitated the use of this methodology as an adjunct to uncovering stem cell niches. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview of the potential markers available to identify and study stem cells in an effort to providing a better understanding of the pathogenesis of skin diseases including disorders of hair loss and malignancies. The potential uses of these markers in prognosis and in expanding the treatment options in several hair loss disorders will also be addressed.
Ketyword hair regrowth hair loss treatment
Indian J Plast Surg.2009;42:63.
Surgical treatment of secondary cicatricial hair loss of scalp and eyebrow
Ahmed Sabry Hassan
edited for hair loss treatment blog
Introduction: The scalp is probably the second most visible part of the human anatomy second only to the face. Aesthetic considerations are extremely important in devising any plan for the restitution of the scalp. The eyebrows are a very noticeable structure and make an essential contribution to facial beauty. Areas of hair loss may result from traumatic, thermal, radiation, neoplastic or infective process. The surgical replacement of hair has progressively become an important part of the practice of plastic surgery. Hair loss following extensive scarring of the scalp can be treated by transferring hair bearing parieto-occipital flaps if convenient or adjacent hair-bearing scalp after tissue expansion. Awaiting stem cell research in this vital field of aesthetic surgery there is no known method to create new hair, and all current techniques for hair loss restoration involve redistributing the patient's existing hair. Many techniques were used for treating hair loss surgically such as scalp reduction, hair grafting, the use of local flaps and the use of tissue expanders.
Hia rloss treatment and regrowth
Vet Dermatol. 2006 Feb;17:45.
....melatonin and brushing on hair regrowth after clipping normal Siberian Husky dogs.
Diaz SF, et al
The aims of this study were to determine the impact of body site, vigorous brushing and topical melatonin treatment on hair regrowth after clipping normal dogs. Siberian Husky dogs were randomly assigned to three groups of eight dogs each. All dogs had the lumbosacral region and both lateral thighs clipped. The left thigh and lumbosacral area received no treatment and were compared in all 24 dogs. Eight dogs had the right thigh treated with 0.1% melatonin twice daily for 2 months, and hair regrowth was compared with the left thigh. Eight dogs had the right thigh brushed twice daily for 2 months, and hair regrowth was compared with the left thigh. Eight dogs had neither thigh treated. Hairs were plucked before and 2 months postclipping, and the proportion of hair growth from the original length was calculated and compared as described above. Biopsy samples were collected before and after treatment to determine if brushing induced dermal inflammation and melatonin increased the proportion of anagen follicles. Proportionally, left thigh hairs were significantly longer compared to lumbosacral hairs 2 months postclipping. No significant differences in hair regrowth were noted between the nontreated thigh and the thigh treated with melatonin or brushed. No significant difference in dermal inflammation was noted before and after brushing. No significant differences were observed in the proportion of anagen follicles before and after topical melatonin treatment. Our results showed that the hairs in the lumbosacral region were proportionally shorter than lateral thigh hairs 2 months postclipping. Moreover, topical melatonin and brushing had no impact on hair regrowth after clipping normal dogs.
Hiar loss treatment and hair regrowth
Br J Dermatol. 2010 May 25.
Intermediate hair follicles: a new more clinically relevant model for hair regrowth investigations.
Miranda BH, et al
Edited for hair loss treatment blog
ABSTRACT Background: Alopecia ( hair loss ) causes widespread psychological distress, but is relatively poorly controlled. The development of new hair loss treatments is hampered by the lack of suitable human hair follicle models. Although intermediate and vellus hair follicles are the main clinical target for pharmacological therapy, terminal hair follicles are more frequently studied as smaller hair follicles are more difficult to obtain. Objectives: This investigation was designed to quantify in vivo morphological and in vitro behavioural differences in organ culture between matched intermediate and terminal hair follicles, in order to develop a new clinically-relevant model system. Methods: Microdissected terminal and intermediate hair follicles, from the same individuals, were analysed morphometrically (250 follicles; 5 individuals), or observed and measured over 9 days of organ culture (210 follicles; 6 individuals). Results: Intermediate hair follicles were less pigmented and smaller, penetrating less below the skin surface, with smaller fibre, connective tissue sheath, bulb and dermal papilla diameters. Intermediate hair follicle bulbs appeared 'tubular' unlike their 'bulbous' terminal follicle counterparts. In organ culture they also grew more slowly, remained in anagen longe and produced less hair fibre than terminal follicles. Conclusions: Smaller intermediate hair follicles showed major morphological differences to terminal follicles and retained significant, biologically-relevant differences in vitro in organ culture. Therefore, intermediate hair follicles offer a novel, exciting, more clinically-relevant, albeit technically difficult, model for future investigations into hair growth. This should be particularly important for developing new treatmens for hair loss.
Calif Med. 1958;89:322.
Noncicatrizing alopecias; with special reference to hair loss due to alopecia areata.
NEW WN, NICKEL WR.
edited for blog use
....there has been general acceptance of the causal relationship of the male sex hormone testosterone, age and inheritance in development of male pattern baldness. snip... Hair loss that accompanies disease states is probably due to generalized toxemia and disturbances in metabolism. Sometimes male pattern baldness occurs in physiologic states, as exemplified by diffuse hair loss occasionally in the postpartum period. snip... The development of alopecia totalis or universalis in 50 per cent of the prepuberal cases of alopecia areata is of real significance, especially since so very few patients regrow normal scalp hair....snip... A few conditions simulate alopecia areata. Probably the ones which are seen most often are trichotillomania and patchy baldness caused by agents used in hair waving and straightening. In 22 cases we found an inflammatory perivascular and perifollicular infiltrate, massive plugging of the ostia, disappearance of robust hair follicles and diminution in total number of hair follicles and sometimes fibrosis are not necessarily diagnostic of alopecia areata but seem to be very definitely characteristic.Treatment for hair regrowth in alopecia areata is of little avail. snip....
FASEB J. 1992;6:911
Interleukin 1 protects hair follicles from ARA-C-induced hair loss in vivo and in vitro.
ImuVert, a biologic response modifier, and interleukin 1 (IL 1) have been shown to protect the young rat from hair loss induced by ARA-C. In the present study the inhibition by ARA-C of DNA synthesis in hair follicles and the protective effect of ImuVert and IL 1 were investigated in vivo and in vitro. Both ImuVert and IL 1 were equally effective in protecting rats from ARA-C-induced hair loss. DNA synthesis in HFs isolated from ARA-C-treated animals was 10-20% of untreated controls. Follicles isolated from animals given either ImuVert or IL 1 before ARA-C exhibited normal DNA synthesis. In vitro, the incubation of normal rat HF with ARA-C resulted in 80% inhibition of thymidine uptake. .....
edited for hair regrowth and hair loss blog
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 Feb;62:177
Alopecia areata update: part I. Clinical picture, histopathology, and pathogenesis.
Alkhalifah A, et al
Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease that presents as nonscarring hair loss, although the exact pathogenesis of the disease remains to be clarified. Disease prevalence rates from 0.1% to 0.2% have been estimated for the United States. AA can affect any hair-bearing area. It often presents as well demarcated patches of nonscarring hair loss on skin of overtly normal appearance. Recently, newer clinical variants have been described. The presence of AA is associated with a higher frequency of other autoimmune diseases. Controversially, there may also be increased psychiatric morbidity in patients with AA. Although some AA features are known poor prognostic signs, the course of the disease is unpredictable and the response to treatment can be variable. Part one of this two-part series on AA describes the clinical presentation and the associated histopathologic picture. It also proposes a hypothesis for AA development based on the most recent knowledge of disease pathogenesis. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After completing this learning activity, participants should be familiar with the most recent advances in AA pathogenesis, recognize the rare and recently described variants of AA, and be able to distinguish between different histopathologic stages of AA..
J Dermatol Sci. 2010;58:43. Epub 2010.
Laminin-511, inducer of hair regrowth, is down-regulated and its suppressor in hair growth, laminin-332 up-regulated in chemotherapy-induced hair loss.
Imanishi H, et al
Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) or hair loss has a devastating cosmetic effect, especially in the young. Recent data indicate that two major basement membrane components (laminin-332 and -511) of the skin have opposing effects on hair growth. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined the role and localization of laminin-332 and -511 in CIA. METHODS: We examined the expression of laminin-332 and -511 during the dystrophic catagen form of CIA induced in C57BL/6 mice by cyclophosphamide (CYP) treatment. RESULTS: Our data indicate that both laminin-332 and its receptor alpha 6 beta 4 integrin are up-regulated (both quantitatively and spatially) after mid to late dystrophic catagen around the outer root sheath (ORS) in the lower third of hair follicles in CIA. This up-regulation also occurs at the transcriptional level. In contrast, laminin-511 is down-regulated after mid dystrophic catagen at the protein level, with transcriptional inactivation of laminin-511 occurring transiently at the early dystrophic catagen stage in both epidermal and ORS keratinocytes. Laminin-511 expression correlates with expression of alpha 3 integrin in CIA and we also demonstrate that laminin-511 can up-regulate the activity of the alpha 3 integrin promoter in cultured keratinocytes. Injection of a laminin-511 rich protein extract, but not recombinant laminin-332, in the back skin of mice delays hair loss in CYP-induced CIA. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that abrupt hair loss in CIA is, at least in part, caused by down-regulation of laminin-511 and up-regulation of laminin-332 at the transcriptional and translational levels.
Cell Stress Chaperones. 2008;13:8
Chemotherapy-induced hair loss.
Jimenez JJ,.et al
Hair loss is experienced by thousands of cancer patients every year. Substantial-to-severe hairloss is induced by anthracyclines, taxanes, alkylating compounds (e.g., cyclophosphamide), and the topisomerase inhibitor etoposide, agents that are widely used in the treatment of leukemias and breast, lung, ovarian, and bladder cancers. Currently, no treatment appears to be generally effective in reliably preventing this secondary effect of chemotherapy. We observed in experiments using different rodent models that localized administration of heat or injection of geldanamycin or 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin induced a stress protein response in hair follicles and effectively prevented hair loss from adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, taxol, and etoposide. Model tumor therapy experiments support the presumption that such localized hair-loss preventing treatment does not negatively affect chemotherapy efficacy.
Cell Stress Chaperones. 2008;13:8
Prevention of chemotherapy-induced hair loss in rodent models.
Jimenez JJ,.et al
edited for hair loss blog
Alopecia (hair loss) is experienced by thousands of cancer patients every year. Substantial-to-severe hair loss is induced by anthracyclines (e.g., adriamycin), taxanes (e.g., taxol), alkylating compounds (e.g., cyclophosphamide), and the topisomerase inhibitor etoposide, agents that are widely used in the treatment of leukemias and breast, lung, ovarian, and bladder cancers. Currently, no treatment appears to be generally effective in reliably preventing this secondary effect of chemotherapy. We observed in experiments using different rodent models that localized administration of heat or subcutaneous/intradermal injection of geldanamycin or 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin induced a stress protein response in hair follicles and effectively prevented alopecia from adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, taxol, and etoposide. Model tumor therapy experiments support the presumption that such localized hair-saving treatment does not negatively affect chemotherapy efficacy.
edited for hair loss treatment blog
Cancer Epidemiol. 2009;33:293.
The effect of active hexose correlated compound in modulating cytosine arabinoside-induced hair loss, and 6-mercaptopurine- and methotrexate-induced liver injury in rodents.
Sun B,et al
BACKGROUND: Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC)... was used to assess amelioration of alopecia (hair loss) caused by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C).. Follicular integrity and hair growth was assessed in male and female SD neonatal rats (8 days old) treated with a single dose of Ara-C (30 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and AHCC (500 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 7 consecutive days. The side effects of a single oral dose of 6-MP plus MTX and their amelioration by treatment with AHCC (1000 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days were assessed in male ddY mice. RESULTS: Of the Ara-C treated rats 71.4% showed severe alopecia and 28.6% showed moderate hair loss. However, the AHCC -treated Ara-C group was significantly protected from alopecia. Ara-treated rats had profound loss of hair follicles but the Ara-C plus AHCC-treated group had mild losses of follicles.snip..
Br J Dermatol. 2009;160:75
Frontal fibrosing alopecia (hairloss): clinical presentations and prognosis.
edited for hair regrowth blog
Tan KT, Messenger AG.
BACKGROUND: Frontal fibrosing alopecia is an uncommon condition characterized by progressive frontotemporal recession due to inflammatory destruction of hair follicles. Little is known about the natural history of this disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical features and natural history of frontal fibrosing alopecia. METHODS: We studied the cases notes of patients diagnosed with frontal fibrosing alopecia from 1993 to 2008 at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield. RESULTS: There were 18 patients aged between 34 and 71 years. Three were premenopausal. All had frontotemporal recession with scarring. This was associated with partial or complete loss of eyebrows in 15 patients while four had hair loss at other sites...snip,,, Progression of frontotemporal recession was seen in some patients, but not all. In one patient the hair line receded by 30 mm over 72 months, whereas in another patient there was no positional change in the hair line after 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: Hairloss secondary to frontal fibrosing alopecia is more common in postmenopausal women, but it can occur in younger women. It may be associated with mucocutaneous lichen planus. Recession of the hair line may progress inexorably over many years but this is not inevitable. It is not clear whether or not treatment alters the natural history of the disease...
J Invest Dermatol. 1976;67:98
Hair and hairloss
The psychologic importance of hair to man is in inverse ratio to its physical function. Except for scalp hair and desultory areas of sexual hair, most of man's hair follicles are vestigial. Three problems of hair regrowth remain to be solved: (1) how the intermittent activity of hair follicles in both animals and man is controlled; how the male hormone alters the hair cycle in human skin; and (3) why larger hairs are produced by testosterone in some areas of the body when in some individuals the hair follicles in the scalp regress. Studies in which skin grafts from rats of different ages were exchanged showed that hair follicles are innately programmed but can be slowly influenced by systemic factors. Steroid hormones, especially estrogens, slow down the moult cycle whereas thyroid hormones accelerate it. What establishes the innate rhythm remains problematical. The fact that plucking out the club hair initiates activity in resting follicles has been explained by the hypothesis that the mitotic inhibitor which accumulates during anagen is normally used up or dispersed during telogen or by wounding. However, contrary to this theory, follicular activity is not prolonged by epilation during anagen. Moreover, if rats are epilated within one or two days of eruption, only club hairs are removed since forceps cannot grasp the tips of the new hairs. Such epilation does not affect the anagen in progress, but remarkedly enough the subsequent resting phase is shortened. Both sexual hair and male-pattern baldness depend on androgenic hormones. snip... The major metabolite of testosterone incubated with hair roots in androstenedione, and hirsute women without other obvious endocrine abnormality sometimes excrete high levels of androstanediol. Both steroids stimulated the sebaceous glands of hypophysectomized-castrated rats, which, however, showed only a limited response to testosterone. The androgenic steroids, the enzymes that convert them to their active metabolites, and the proteins that bind them are undoubtedly very important to the problems of the growth of sexual hair and male-pattern baldness.
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