List of Hair loss treatment blogs
Hair regrowth blogs
Hair loss and hair loss treatment
Arch Dermatol. 1992;128(1):68
The follicular degeneration syndrome in black patients. 'Hot comb alopecia' revisited and revised.
Sperling LC, Sau P.
BACKGROUND--The history, physical examination, and histologic findings in 10 black women with a common, distinctive form of scarring alopecia ( hair loss ) were retrospectively studied. A detailed history of hair care habits was obtained, and scalp biopsy specimens were examined after both vertical and transverse sectioning. OBSERVATIONS--Poor correlation is noted between the usage of a hot comb and the onset or progression of disease. The earliest observable histologic abnormality is the premature desquamation of the inner root sheath. In severely affected follicles this is followed by a chain of histologic events leading to complete follicular degeneration. CONCLUSIONS--The term follicular degeneration syndrome (FDS) is proposed for this clinically and histologically distinct form of scarring alopecia. Historical information is incompatible with the hypothesis that hot comb usage causes the hair loss. It remains unclear whether the use of any of a variety of hair care products and techniques plays a role in the pathogenesis of this condition. ..snip...
( edited for hair loss treatment blog )
Hair loss treatment at the Proctor Clinic
Z Hautkr. 1990;65(12):108o
Assessment of Hair-loss treatment methods,
With regard to hair regrowth induced by therapeutics, we must consider the activity of the hair follicle. This means that a study on the efficacy of hair regrowth treatments requires investigation of different kinds of follicular activity. The decision which technique depends on the reliability of the method in relation to the technical requirement, on the one hand, and the acceptance by the volunteer as well as the clinical type and degree of hair loss, on the other. Trichorhizogram results as the only means of evaluating the efficacy of hair growth therapeutics seem problematical, since an increase of the anagen rate does not absolutely correlate with a prolongation of the anagen phase.
Mymensingh Med J. 2010;19:100
Histopathological changes in different stages of ha r loss due to alopecia areata.
Ahmed Z, et al
Hair loss due to alopecia areata is a common disorder affecting any of the hair bearing areas of the body. Most of the cases are diagnosed on the clinical ground only. Histopathological changes may help in the diagnosis in difficult cases. The present study was designed to observe the histopathologic changes accompanying hair loss in alopecia areata at different stages. Thirty consecutive patients suffering from alopecia areata were enrolled. Face to face interview was performed using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. At the initial visit, one 4mm punch scalp biopsy specimen was taken from an area of hair loss. ....Haematoxylin and eosin stains were used. Anagen hairs were decreased in all stages of hair loss due to alopecia areata. Telogen hairs increased in acute and chronic stages whereas catagen hairs increased markedly in sub-acute stage. Although miniaturized (atrophic) follicle was frequently found in chronic stage. It was absent in acute and sub-acute stages. Moderate to dense peribulbar infiltration of lymphocytes were observed in acute stage and mild to moderate infiltration in sub-acute stage. In chronic stage either no or mild infiltrations were observed. Peribulbar infiltration of eosinophils and macrophages were seen in all stages of alopecia areata. Alopecia areata can be diagnosed with some confidence, even when inflammatory infiltrate is absent, based on increased numbers of telogen hairs in the acute and chronic stages, increased miniaturized hairs in chronic stage and markedly increased catagen hairs in sub-acute stage.
edited for hair loss blog use. Key words hair regrowth hair loss hair loss treatment.
Clin Ophthalmol. 2010 Apr 26;4:349.
Bimatoprost in the treatment of eyelash hair loss.
Editd for hair loss treatment blog
Eyelashes hypotrichosis is a condition indicated by an inadequate amount of eyelashes. Hypertrichosis of eyelashes, characterized by excessive eyelash hair growth, is a regular phenomenon associated with ophthalmic prostaglandin and prostamide analogs. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Latisse((R)) (bimatoprost 0.03% solution), identical to the ophthalmic solution for glaucoma treatment, for increasing eyelash hair length, thickness and darkness in patients with hypotrichosis of the eyelashes. When prostaglandin and prostamide analogs interact with the prostanoid receptors in the hair follicle, this most likely stimulates the resting follicles (telogen phase) to growing follicles (anagen phase). Prostaglandin and prostamide analogs may also prolong the anagen phase of eyelashes, leading to an increase of eyelash length. Although bimatoprost is effective in promoting increased regrowth of healthy eyelashes and adnexal hairs, its effectiveness in patients with eyelash hair loss due to alopecia areata is debatable and its protective effect is not yet studied in patients with eyelash loss secondary to radiation or chemotherapy. Bimatoprost is generally safe when applied to the base of the eyelashes at the lid margin with minimum side effects. However, other ocular or systemic side effects associated with ophthalmic prostaglandin and prostamide analogs may occur when instilled on the surface of the eye, and patients must be informed and monitored.
Br J Dermatol. 2009 Aug;161:228
Epidermal stem cells: practical perspectives and potential uses.
Abbas O, Mahalingam M.
Modified for hair loss blog
Throughout adult life, the epidermis and the hair follicle undergo a perpetual cycle of regrowth, regression and rest. Stem cells in the epidermis not only ensure the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis and hair regrowth, but also contribute to repair of the epidermis after injury. These stem cells lie within specific niches in the hair follicle and the epidermis. The availability of monoclonal antibodies that can be used on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue has greatly facilitated the use of this methodology as an adjunct to uncovering stem cell niches. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview of the potential markers available to identify and study stem cells in an effort to providing a better understanding of the pathogenesis of skin diseases including disorders of hair loss and malignancies. The potential uses of these markers in prognosis and in expanding the treatment options in several hair loss disorders will also be addressed.
Ketyword hair regrowth hair loss treatment
Indian J Plast Surg.2009;42:63.
Surgical treatment of secondary cicatricial hair loss of scalp and eyebrow
Ahmed Sabry Hassan
edited for hair loss treatment blog
Introduction: The scalp is probably the second most visible part of the human anatomy second only to the face. Aesthetic considerations are extremely important in devising any plan for the restitution of the scalp. The eyebrows are a very noticeable structure and make an essential contribution to facial beauty. Areas of hair loss may result from traumatic, thermal, radiation, neoplastic or infective process. The surgical replacement of hair has progressively become an important part of the practice of plastic surgery. Hair loss following extensive scarring of the scalp can be treated by transferring hair bearing parieto-occipital flaps if convenient or adjacent hair-bearing scalp after tissue expansion. Awaiting stem cell research in this vital field of aesthetic surgery there is no known method to create new hair, and all current techniques for hair loss restoration involve redistributing the patient's existing hair. Many techniques were used for treating hair loss surgically such as scalp reduction, hair grafting, the use of local flaps and the use of tissue expanders.
Hia rloss treatment and regrowth
Vet Dermatol. 2006 Feb;17:45.
....melatonin and brushing on hair regrowth after clipping normal Siberian Husky dogs.
Diaz SF, et al
The aims of this study were to determine the impact of body site, vigorous brushing and topical melatonin treatment on hair regrowth after clipping normal dogs. Siberian Husky dogs were randomly assigned to three groups of eight dogs each. All dogs had the lumbosacral region and both lateral thighs clipped. The left thigh and lumbosacral area received no treatment and were compared in all 24 dogs. Eight dogs had the right thigh treated with 0.1% melatonin twice daily for 2 months, and hair regrowth was compared with the left thigh. Eight dogs had the right thigh brushed twice daily for 2 months, and hair regrowth was compared with the left thigh. Eight dogs had neither thigh treated. Hairs were plucked before and 2 months postclipping, and the proportion of hair growth from the original length was calculated and compared as described above. Biopsy samples were collected before and after treatment to determine if brushing induced dermal inflammation and melatonin increased the proportion of anagen follicles. Proportionally, left thigh hairs were significantly longer compared to lumbosacral hairs 2 months postclipping. No significant differences in hair regrowth were noted between the nontreated thigh and the thigh treated with melatonin or brushed. No significant difference in dermal inflammation was noted before and after brushing. No significant differences were observed in the proportion of anagen follicles before and after topical melatonin treatment. Our results showed that the hairs in the lumbosacral region were proportionally shorter than lateral thigh hairs 2 months postclipping. Moreover, topical melatonin and brushing had no impact on hair regrowth after clipping normal dogs.
Hiar loss treatment and hair regrowth
Br J Dermatol. 2010 May 25.
Intermediate hair follicles: a new more clinically relevant model for hair regrowth investigations.
Miranda BH, et al
Edited for hair loss treatment blog
ABSTRACT Background: Alopecia ( hair loss ) causes widespread psychological distress, but is relatively poorly controlled. The development of new hair loss treatments is hampered by the lack of suitable human hair follicle models. Although intermediate and vellus hair follicles are the main clinical target for pharmacological therapy, terminal hair follicles are more frequently studied as smaller hair follicles are more difficult to obtain. Objectives: This investigation was designed to quantify in vivo morphological and in vitro behavioural differences in organ culture between matched intermediate and terminal hair follicles, in order to develop a new clinically-relevant model system. Methods: Microdissected terminal and intermediate hair follicles, from the same individuals, were analysed morphometrically (250 follicles; 5 individuals), or observed and measured over 9 days of organ culture (210 follicles; 6 individuals). Results: Intermediate hair follicles were less pigmented and smaller, penetrating less below the skin surface, with smaller fibre, connective tissue sheath, bulb and dermal papilla diameters. Intermediate hair follicle bulbs appeared 'tubular' unlike their 'bulbous' terminal follicle counterparts. In organ culture they also grew more slowly, remained in anagen longe and produced less hair fibre than terminal follicles. Conclusions: Smaller intermediate hair follicles showed major morphological differences to terminal follicles and retained significant, biologically-relevant differences in vitro in organ culture. Therefore, intermediate hair follicles offer a novel, exciting, more clinically-relevant, albeit technically difficult, model for future investigations into hair growth. This should be particularly important for developing new treatmens for hair loss.
Calif Med. 1958;89:322.
Noncicatrizing alopecias; with special reference to hair loss due to alopecia areata.
NEW WN, NICKEL WR.
edited for blog use
....there has been general acceptance of the causal relationship of the male sex hormone testosterone, age and inheritance in development of male pattern baldness. snip... Hair loss that accompanies disease states is probably due to generalized toxemia and disturbances in metabolism. Sometimes male pattern baldness occurs in physiologic states, as exemplified by diffuse hair loss occasionally in the postpartum period. snip... The development of alopecia totalis or universalis in 50 per cent of the prepuberal cases of alopecia areata is of real significance, especially since so very few patients regrow normal scalp hair....snip... A few conditions simulate alopecia areata. Probably the ones which are seen most often are trichotillomania and patchy baldness caused by agents used in hair waving and straightening. In 22 cases we found an inflammatory perivascular and perifollicular infiltrate, massive plugging of the ostia, disappearance of robust hair follicles and diminution in total number of hair follicles and sometimes fibrosis are not necessarily diagnostic of alopecia areata but seem to be very definitely characteristic.Treatment for hair regrowth in alopecia areata is of little avail. snip....
FASEB J. 1992;6:911
Interleukin 1 protects hair follicles from ARA-C-induced hair loss in vivo and in vitro.
ImuVert, a biologic response modifier, and interleukin 1 (IL 1) have been shown to protect the young rat from hair loss induced by ARA-C. In the present study the inhibition by ARA-C of DNA synthesis in hair follicles and the protective effect of ImuVert and IL 1 were investigated in vivo and in vitro. Both ImuVert and IL 1 were equally effective in protecting rats from ARA-C-induced hair loss. DNA synthesis in HFs isolated from ARA-C-treated animals was 10-20% of untreated controls. Follicles isolated from animals given either ImuVert or IL 1 before ARA-C exhibited normal DNA synthesis. In vitro, the incubation of normal rat HF with ARA-C resulted in 80% inhibition of thymidine uptake. .....
edited for hair regrowth and hair loss blog
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 Feb;62:177
Alopecia areata update: part I. Clinical picture, histopathology, and pathogenesis.
Alkhalifah A, et al
Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease that presents as nonscarring hair loss, although the exact pathogenesis of the disease remains to be clarified. Disease prevalence rates from 0.1% to 0.2% have been estimated for the United States. AA can affect any hair-bearing area. It often presents as well demarcated patches of nonscarring hair loss on skin of overtly normal appearance. Recently, newer clinical variants have been described. The presence of AA is associated with a higher frequency of other autoimmune diseases. Controversially, there may also be increased psychiatric morbidity in patients with AA. Although some AA features are known poor prognostic signs, the course of the disease is unpredictable and the response to treatment can be variable. Part one of this two-part series on AA describes the clinical presentation and the associated histopathologic picture. It also proposes a hypothesis for AA development based on the most recent knowledge of disease pathogenesis. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After completing this learning activity, participants should be familiar with the most recent advances in AA pathogenesis, recognize the rare and recently described variants of AA, and be able to distinguish between different histopathologic stages of AA..
J Dermatol Sci. 2010;58:43. Epub 2010.
Laminin-511, inducer of hair regrowth, is down-regulated and its suppressor in hair growth, laminin-332 up-regulated in chemotherapy-induced hair loss.
Imanishi H, et al
Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) or hair loss has a devastating cosmetic effect, especially in the young. Recent data indicate that two major basement membrane components (laminin-332 and -511) of the skin have opposing effects on hair growth. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined the role and localization of laminin-332 and -511 in CIA. METHODS: We examined the expression of laminin-332 and -511 during the dystrophic catagen form of CIA induced in C57BL/6 mice by cyclophosphamide (CYP) treatment. RESULTS: Our data indicate that both laminin-332 and its receptor alpha 6 beta 4 integrin are up-regulated (both quantitatively and spatially) after mid to late dystrophic catagen around the outer root sheath (ORS) in the lower third of hair follicles in CIA. This up-regulation also occurs at the transcriptional level. In contrast, laminin-511 is down-regulated after mid dystrophic catagen at the protein level, with transcriptional inactivation of laminin-511 occurring transiently at the early dystrophic catagen stage in both epidermal and ORS keratinocytes. Laminin-511 expression correlates with expression of alpha 3 integrin in CIA and we also demonstrate that laminin-511 can up-regulate the activity of the alpha 3 integrin promoter in cultured keratinocytes. Injection of a laminin-511 rich protein extract, but not recombinant laminin-332, in the back skin of mice delays hair loss in CYP-induced CIA. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that abrupt hair loss in CIA is, at least in part, caused by down-regulation of laminin-511 and up-regulation of laminin-332 at the transcriptional and translational levels.
Cell Stress Chaperones. 2008;13:8
Chemotherapy-induced hair loss.
Jimenez JJ,.et al
Hair loss is experienced by thousands of cancer patients every year. Substantial-to-severe hairloss is induced by anthracyclines, taxanes, alkylating compounds (e.g., cyclophosphamide), and the topisomerase inhibitor etoposide, agents that are widely used in the treatment of leukemias and breast, lung, ovarian, and bladder cancers. Currently, no treatment appears to be generally effective in reliably preventing this secondary effect of chemotherapy. We observed in experiments using different rodent models that localized administration of heat or injection of geldanamycin or 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin induced a stress protein response in hair follicles and effectively prevented hair loss from adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, taxol, and etoposide. Model tumor therapy experiments support the presumption that such localized hair-loss preventing treatment does not negatively affect chemotherapy efficacy.
Cell Stress Chaperones. 2008;13:8
Prevention of chemotherapy-induced hair loss in rodent models.
Jimenez JJ,.et al
edited for hair loss blog
Alopecia (hair loss) is experienced by thousands of cancer patients every year. Substantial-to-severe hair loss is induced by anthracyclines (e.g., adriamycin), taxanes (e.g., taxol), alkylating compounds (e.g., cyclophosphamide), and the topisomerase inhibitor etoposide, agents that are widely used in the treatment of leukemias and breast, lung, ovarian, and bladder cancers. Currently, no treatment appears to be generally effective in reliably preventing this secondary effect of chemotherapy. We observed in experiments using different rodent models that localized administration of heat or subcutaneous/intradermal injection of geldanamycin or 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin induced a stress protein response in hair follicles and effectively prevented alopecia from adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, taxol, and etoposide. Model tumor therapy experiments support the presumption that such localized hair-saving treatment does not negatively affect chemotherapy efficacy.
edited for hair loss treatment blog
Cancer Epidemiol. 2009;33:293.
The effect of active hexose correlated compound in modulating cytosine arabinoside-induced hair loss, and 6-mercaptopurine- and methotrexate-induced liver injury in rodents.
Sun B,et al
BACKGROUND: Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC)... was used to assess amelioration of alopecia (hair loss) caused by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C).. Follicular integrity and hair growth was assessed in male and female SD neonatal rats (8 days old) treated with a single dose of Ara-C (30 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and AHCC (500 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 7 consecutive days. The side effects of a single oral dose of 6-MP plus MTX and their amelioration by treatment with AHCC (1000 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days were assessed in male ddY mice. RESULTS: Of the Ara-C treated rats 71.4% showed severe alopecia and 28.6% showed moderate hair loss. However, the AHCC -treated Ara-C group was significantly protected from alopecia. Ara-treated rats had profound loss of hair follicles but the Ara-C plus AHCC-treated group had mild losses of follicles.snip..
Br J Dermatol. 2009;160:75
Frontal fibrosing alopecia (hairloss): clinical presentations and prognosis.
edited for hair regrowth blog
Tan KT, Messenger AG.
BACKGROUND: Frontal fibrosing alopecia is an uncommon condition characterized by progressive frontotemporal recession due to inflammatory destruction of hair follicles. Little is known about the natural history of this disease. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical features and natural history of frontal fibrosing alopecia. METHODS: We studied the cases notes of patients diagnosed with frontal fibrosing alopecia from 1993 to 2008 at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield. RESULTS: There were 18 patients aged between 34 and 71 years. Three were premenopausal. All had frontotemporal recession with scarring. This was associated with partial or complete loss of eyebrows in 15 patients while four had hair loss at other sites...snip,,, Progression of frontotemporal recession was seen in some patients, but not all. In one patient the hair line receded by 30 mm over 72 months, whereas in another patient there was no positional change in the hair line after 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: Hairloss secondary to frontal fibrosing alopecia is more common in postmenopausal women, but it can occur in younger women. It may be associated with mucocutaneous lichen planus. Recession of the hair line may progress inexorably over many years but this is not inevitable. It is not clear whether or not treatment alters the natural history of the disease...
J Invest Dermatol. 1976;67:98
Hair and hairloss
The psychologic importance of hair to man is in inverse ratio to its physical function. Except for scalp hair and desultory areas of sexual hair, most of man's hair follicles are vestigial. Three problems of hair regrowth remain to be solved: (1) how the intermittent activity of hair follicles in both animals and man is controlled; how the male hormone alters the hair cycle in human skin; and (3) why larger hairs are produced by testosterone in some areas of the body when in some individuals the hair follicles in the scalp regress. Studies in which skin grafts from rats of different ages were exchanged showed that hair follicles are innately programmed but can be slowly influenced by systemic factors. Steroid hormones, especially estrogens, slow down the moult cycle whereas thyroid hormones accelerate it. What establishes the innate rhythm remains problematical. The fact that plucking out the club hair initiates activity in resting follicles has been explained by the hypothesis that the mitotic inhibitor which accumulates during anagen is normally used up or dispersed during telogen or by wounding. However, contrary to this theory, follicular activity is not prolonged by epilation during anagen. Moreover, if rats are epilated within one or two days of eruption, only club hairs are removed since forceps cannot grasp the tips of the new hairs. Such epilation does not affect the anagen in progress, but remarkedly enough the subsequent resting phase is shortened. Both sexual hair and male-pattern baldness depend on androgenic hormones. snip... The major metabolite of testosterone incubated with hair roots in androstenedione, and hirsute women without other obvious endocrine abnormality sometimes excrete high levels of androstanediol. Both steroids stimulated the sebaceous glands of hypophysectomized-castrated rats, which, however, showed only a limited response to testosterone. The androgenic steroids, the enzymes that convert them to their active metabolites, and the proteins that bind them are undoubtedly very important to the problems of the growth of sexual hair and male-pattern baldness.
Clin Interv Aging. 2006;1(:121
Pharmacologic interventions in aging hair
Ralph M Trüeb
Androgenetic alopecia aka male-pattern hair loss or common baldness in men, and female-pattern hair loss in women, affects at least 50% of men by the age of 50 years, and eventually up to 70% of all males . Recent studies assert that 16% of women aged under 50 years are affected, increasing to a proportion of 30%–40% of women aged 70 years and over. The hair loss is heritable, androgen-dependent, and occurs in a defined pattern. This involves replacement of large, pigmented hairs (terminal hairs) by barely visible vellous hair. It is assumed that the genetically predisposed hair follicles are the target for androgen-stimulated hair follicle miniaturization. T^his leads to gradual e, depigmented hairs (vellus hairs) in affected areas. This results in a decline in scalp hair density. snip... major advances have been achieved in understanding principal elements of the androgen metabolism involved in the pathogenesis of pattern hair loss : Androgen-dependent processes are predominantly due to the binding of dihydrotestosterone to the androgen receptor. Dihydrotestosterone-dependent cell functions depend on weak androgens, their conversion to more potent androgens, low enzymatic activity of androgen inactivating enzymes, and functionally active AR present in high numbers. The predisposed scalp exhibits high levels of DHT, and increased expression of the AR. Conversion of testosterone to DHT plays a central role, while androgen-regulated factors deriving from dermal papilla cells are believed to influence growth of other components of the hair follicle. Many hair regrowth-modulating factors, such as androgens, work in the dermal papilla. Thus, research is currently also focused on androgen-regulated factors. Of factors suggested to figure in hair regrowth, so far only insulin-like growth factor is reported to be altered by androgens, and stem cell factor (SCF) has been found to be produced in higher amounts by androgen-dependent beard cells than in control non-balding scalp cells, presumably also in response to androgens. snip..
The limited success using treatment with hair regrowth promoters or modulators of androgen metabolism means that further pathogenic pathways figure. The implication of microscopic follicular inflammation in the pathogenesis of AGA has recently emerged from several independent studies. There is an inflammatory infiltrate of activated T cells and macrophages in hair follicles, associated with an enlargement of the follicular dermal sheath composed of collagen bundles (perifollicular fibrosis or scaring), in regions of actively progressing hair loss. Horizontal section studies of scalp biopsies indicated that the perifollicular scarring is generally mild. The term “microinflammation” has been proposed because the process involves a slow, subtle, and indolent course, in contrast to the inflammatory and destructive process in the classical inflammatory scarring alopecias. snip.... .. Arguably, microbial toxins or antigens could be involved. Alternatively, keratinocytes themselves may respond to chemical stress from irritants, pollutants, and ultraviolet irradiation, by producing radical oxygen species and nitric oxide, and by releasing intracellularly stored interleukin. snip.. themselves mediators for the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages, have been shown to be upregulated in the epithelial compartment of the human hair follicle. snip... After processing of localized antigen, Langerhans cells, or alternatively keratinocytes, which may also have antigen presenting capabilities, could then present antigen to newly infiltrating T lymphocytes and induce T-cell proliferation. The antigens are selectively destroyed by infiltrating macrophages, or natural killer cells. On the occasion that the causal agents persist, sustained inflammation is the result, together with connective tissue remodeling, where collagenases, such as matrix metalloproteinase (also transcriptionally driven by pro-inflammatory cytokines) play an active role. Collagenases may contribute to perifollicular fibrosis. The significance is controversial. However, in patients with male pattern hair loss treated with minoxidil, 55% of those with microinflammation had regrowth in response to treatment, in comparison with 77% in those patients without inflammation and fibrosis.
keywards-- hair loss treatment hair regrowth
Am Fam Physician. 200915;80:356
Diagnosing and treating hair loss.
Mounsey AL, Reed SW.
Do not underestimate the emotional impact of hair loss for some patients. Patients may present with focal patches of hair loss or more diffuse hair loss, which may include predominant hair thinning or increased hair shedding. Focal hair loss can be further broken down into scarring and nonscarring. Scarring alopecia is best evaluated by a dermatologist. The cause of focal hair loss may be diagnosed by the appearance of the patch and examination for fungal agents. A scalp biopsy may be necessary if the cause of hair loss is unclear. Alopecia areata presents with smooth hairless patches, which have a high spontaneous rate of resolution. Tinea capitis causes patches of alopecia that may be erythematous and scaly. Male and female pattern hair losses have recognizable patterns and can be treated with topical minoxidil, and also with finasteride in men. Sudden loss of hair is usually telogen effluvium, but can also be diffuse alopecia areata. In telogen effluvium, once the precipitating cause is removed, the hair will regrow.
Loss of hair and alopecia are the most common problems of modern societies, which create many economical and psychological effects. Recently, a great effort has been made to treat hair loss and alopecia, in which some of them were successful. One of the most common types of alopecia is baldness or androgenetic alopecia. This kind of alopecia is recognized by progressive narrowing of hair in the vertex and fronto- temporal area of scalp, in persons with genetic potency. The alopecia is hereditary in nature and is formed due to the high testosterone receptors in scalps of involved persons. Dihydroxy testosterone is an active form of testosterone that is produced by enzyme type II, 5-a reductase from testosterone.  Testosterone affects hair follicle, resulting in hair shaft thinning, shortening of anagen phase and prolongation of telogen phase. The most recommended treatment for androgenic alopecia is composed of local minoxidil, hormonal therapy such as local and oral anti- androgen or local progesterone containing products. ,,,,, Finasteride is an effective drug for treatment of male alopecia that can be used orally or locally. The drug decreases loss of hair by inhibiting 5-α reductase enzyme activity, which converts testosterone to its active form, namely di-hydrotestosterone which is the main cause of male pattern hair loss. Topical finasteride is used to treat male pattern hair loss.  Since, long-term finasteride is needed for treatment of male pattern hair loss;in treatment of pattern in men. If topical form is effective, it will prevent the undesirable side effects of systemic form of drug. In addition, it will be a suitable treatment for this social problem, especially in adolescence and young age groups in which hair protection, as a cosmetic, is important for them.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl.2008;19:796
Vitamin D dependent rickets type II:
Soni SS, et al
Vitamin D dependent rickets type II is alternatively known as rickets-alopecia syndrome. The disorder is characterized by end organ resistance to physiological doses of 1,25 dihydroxy cholecalciferol. The basic defect involves the unresponsiveness of vitamin D receptor (VDR) to 1,25dihydroxyvitamin D. Brooks et al  in 1978 first reported a 22–year-old African American woman with hypocalcemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, and osteitis fibrosa cystica in association with normal serum 25–hydroxyvitamin D and markedly increased serum 1,25–dihydroxyvitamin D. They labeled this syndrome as VDDR type II. Many publications followed reporting similar clinical observations of early onset vitamin D unresponsive rickets and severe hypocalcemia with or without alopecia ( hair loss ).
Eil et al demonstrated defective nuclear uptake of vitamin D in cultured fibroblasts from these patients. Laboratory clue to diagnosis of VDDR II is high level of 1,25–dihydroxyvitamin D in a patient with hypocalcemia and non-azotemic rickets, as observed in our case. Rapid molecular diagnosis is also possible by testing the effects of 1,25–(OH)2D3 on thymidine incorporation into PHA-stimulated lymphocytes. The prenatal diagnosis of VDDR-II by analysis of amniotic fluid cells and fetal tissue is indicated in high risk families. These patients are prone for infections because of immune dysfunction and impaired neutrophilic chemotaxis.
VDDR II is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in the vitamin D receptor gene located on chromosome 12q12–q14. Thus far, 13 mutations have been identified. Treatment with high dose vitamin D analogues is found to be effective as in our case. Takeda E  reported a sibling cured by treatment with 50,000 IU of vitamin D2 daily for 2 years without any recurrence for 14 years after cessation of therapy. High dose oral calcium alone or in combination with intravenous calcium  are also reported to be effective treatment options.
The cutaneous epidermal growth factor network: Can it be translated clinically to stimulate hair growth?
Doru T Alexandrescu MD1, C Lisa Kauffman MD1, Constantin A Dasanu MD PhD2
Dermatology Online Journal 15: 1
...Cooperation of EGF with other molecules appears to be necessary, such as with the downregulation of TGF-α, but synergism with other effectors may be also required. For example, a long hair phenotype can be seen with a null FGF-5 (fibroblast growth factor 5) , whereas TGF-α repression, along with producing a wavy phenotype, stimulates the growth of hair. Prompting of hair growth by EGFR blockage is likely to represent a complex interplay that involves modulation of several other cellular mediators (Fig. 2)...
Hair Loss Treatment at the Proctor clinic.
Indian J Plast Surg. 2009 Jan-Jun;42(1):63-7.
Surgical treatment of secondary cicatricial alopecia of scalp and eyebrow.
Secondary cicatricial alopecia (hair loss) occurs as a result of destruction of hair follicles by scar tissue formed in the scalp and eyebrows. It is a permanent condition and regrowth of hairs in the area is not expected. The purpose of the study was to select the appropriate method for treating cicatricial alopecia. 24 patients were admitted to our hospital during the period from June 2006 to July 2007. They were suffering from acquired cicatricial alopecia affecting the scalp and the eyebrow. Their ages ranged from 6-48 years with mean age 26-25 years. They were treated surgically by total excision of the lesions with direct closure of the defect in ten cases, excision of alopecia with advancement flaps with the aid of scalp expanders in seven cases, scalp reduction through serial excision of alopecia in three cases and excision of alopecia and reconstruction of the defect by strip composite hair-bearing scalp grafts in four cases. Our results suggest there are three key factors that decide the surgical methods for treating hair loss: size, location and shape......
edited for blog use
Successful treatment of temporal triangular alopecia by hair restoration surgery using follicular unit transplantation.
Wu WY, et al
Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Cell Stem Cell. 2009;5:232
Growth signaling at the nexus of stem cell life and death.
Wood KC, Sabatini DM.
Stress can activate tumor-suppressive mechanisms, causing the loss of adult stem cell function with age. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell and in Nature, Castilho et al. (2009) and Harrison et al. (2009) highlight the importance of mTOR signaling in stem cell exhaustion and mammalian aging, respectively.
Dr Proctor comments: One cause of age-related hair loss may be stem cell exhaustion in the hair follicle
Indian J Plast Surg.2009;42:63
Surgical treatment of secondary cicatricial hair loss of scalp and eyebrow.
Secondary cicatricial alopecia (hair loss) occurs as a result of destruction of hair follicles by scar tissue formed in the scalp and eyebrows. It is a permanent condition and regrowth of hairs in the area is not expected. The purpose of the study was to select the appropriate method for treating cicatricial hair loss. 24 patients were admitted to our hospital during the period from June 2006 to July 2007. They were suffering from acquired cicatricial alopecia affecting the scalp and the eyebrow. Their ages ranged from 6-48 years with mean age 26-25 years. They were treated by total excision of the lesions with direct closure of the defect in ten cases, excision of hreas of hair loss with advancement flaps with the aid of scalp expanders in seven cases, scalp reduction through serial excision of alopecia in three cases and excision of alopecia and reconstruction of the defect by strip composite hair-bearing scalp grafts in four cases. Our results suggest there are three key factors that decide the surgical methods for treating hair loss: size,snip....
edited for blog
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